?APA Assignment
science of robotics in medical fieldIn the modern days of technology, one thing which really impresses every human being is robots. Also, in every human imagination,s a robot is like a technological machine that acts as well as looks like a human. In fact, robots originally defined as the man-made mechanical machine that moves acts and works on different kind of sensors and can be influenced by ‘programming’ and previously from one decade, robots also used in the medical field which increases the chances of success. So that is why I choose the topic named as ‘Robots in medical field’ to show everyone that how robots extensively used in curing so many diseases such as cancer, delivery, surgery etc. On the basis of the topic I described above, I am going to discuss three articles which best defined the topic. My first two articles are from a Journal titled as Science robotics and the third article is from a Magazine named as Live science.

Article ONE
Micro/nanorobots for biomedicine: delivery, surgery, sensing, and detoxification
Summary of Article ONE:
Robotic technology greatly influencing human beings in every field of life as well as extended the reach of humans in interacting, changing and transforming the world around us. (Robotics-VO,2016). Also, with the increase in the technology, many severe diseases which leads to the death of a human is curable these days mainly with the help of robotic technologies which rise the health care. Moreover, high efforts in developing more Nano/macrobiotic community tends to increase the power, motion control, functionality versatility and capabilities of the various prototypes, as well as the development in these robots offer great potential for a variety of biomedical applications. Significantly, the function of these nanorobots has been carefully recognized in a live animal’s body which gives a positive result as it penetrates tissues and payload capabilities. (ACS Nano, 2015). Nanorobots extensively used for targeted delivery of drugs as they don’t depend on systematic circulation and the unique reason for their usage is microrobots have propelling force, control navigation, as well as cargo, towing with a release and tissue penetration. Considering the huge progress made recently in the development of these robots in order to increase their uses toward in-vivo delivery and these nanorobots are going to become powerful and effective active transport vehicles that may enable a various application in the field of therapeutics that are otherwise not possible to achieve through traditional delivery systems.

Also, these tiny robots used for precise surgery because they can precise, flexible and control or navigate throughout the human body and hence cure many specific health diseases. (Lanfranco, 2004). Owing to their unique features of autonomous motion as well as effective sensing, these nano/microrobots promise for performing various demanding biosensing applications. (Guix, 2014). Other uses of nanorobots which includes detoxification with high cleaning capability because they capture and remove toxin to render the environment non-toxic. (Goa, 2015). Overall, micro/nanorobots have emerged as a big and versatile platform to increase the pros of nanotechnologies and robotic sciences. Also, we can conclude that with the collaboration of robots and medical community, these medical challenges can be gradually decreased which expand the horizon of robotic use in medicine and curing diseases. (Chen, 2016).

Article SECOND
The development of humanoid robots has been surprisingly increased over the past decade. Today’s robots have so many applications including from personal assistance to medicine as well as space exploration. There are robots present named as humanoids robots such as Kenshiro and Eccerobot which can interact with humans in a more natural way and safer as well. (Inaba, 2010). The main aim is to produce detailed humanoid anatomical robot which looks same as a human with muscles, tendons, and bones. Humanoid structures are mostly activated by artificial muscles and that is why they have more ability to mimic more accurately the degree of freedom than the normal forces observed in joints of humans. Therefore, it is not a surprising fact that humanoid robots offer new opportunities in science as well as medicine and open opportunities for tissue transplant applications. (Diamond, 2012).

In modern days, there are growing problems of tissue disorders and injuries related to a tendon, ligament, and cartilage, so the only cure is to repair this problem by engineer tissue grafts via humanoid robots and bioreactors. (Martin, 2004). Current bioreactors are failed to mimic the real mechanical environment of cells and provide multidirectional stresses. Therefore, we need to develop more advanced bioreactors but instead of making new bioreactors, scientists make humanoid robots which are highly relevant and could help to overcome the limitations of current bioreactors. (Laschi, 2016) Humanoid robots perfectly interact with the environment and have a great sense and controlled the smooth fabrication of more good tissue grafts. Overall, it is both technically as well as scientifically possible to use the humanoid robots as a tool for regeneration.

Article THIRD

From the previous 8-9 years, scientist continuously research about the killing of cancer cells with help of magnetic robots and magnetic forces to guide and destroy cancer cells inside a human body and they found that magnetic fields used previously to remove a catheter inside the heart (Ernst, 2004) and run a video capsule inside the gut of human (Ciuti, 2011). With the help of magnetic fields, these tiny robots work together in order to overcome huge problems like fighting cancer cells. However, a problem still persisted due to working together of these robots under the same magnetic field and scientist still find a way in which each individual member moves in its own direction and has its own speed to do more curable effects (Diller, 2011). Now, scientists have developed a way in which they created the number of small uniforms magnetic screws and then used a strong, uniform magnetic field to freeze some of the screws together in order to have a more powerful effect (Nothnagel, 2016). By using these small groups of screws, when the screw spin, we can inject the medicine in form of pills which contain a dose of radiation spins and in this way only the cells which are effects by cancer will destroy, not the healthy cells (Halperin, 2013). Another huge application of these tiny magnetic robots could be medical implants that differ over time. In today’s world of medical science, these magnetic robots could help better shape the implanted cells to the bodies of patients when the person is in the process of healing (Rehmer, 2013). Also, in the coming future researchers could develop good magnetic field application related to tiny magnetic robots and use imaging such in the x-ray machines or ultrasound machines in order to enhance their uses in the medical field. (Haegele, 2016)
Article ONE
J., Li, B., Avila, W., Gao, L., Zhang, & J., Wang. (01 March 2017). Micro/nanorobots for biomedicine: Delivery, surgery, sensing, and detoxification. Science Robotics, 2(4), 24-27.

Article 2nd
Mouthuy, P., & Carr, A. (01 March 2017). Growing tissue grafts on humanoid robots: A future strategy in regenerative medicine. Science Robotics,2(4), 78-84.
Article THREE
Choi, C. Q. (2017, February 15). Cancer-Fighting Army: Magnetic Robot Swarms Could Combat Disease. Live science, 143-145. Retrieved From < http://www.livescience.com/57898-magnetic-robot-swarms-could-fight-cancer.html>