Capability of non-motile adult eukaryotic cells to be motile can be harmful to the organism

Capability of non-motile adult eukaryotic cells to be motile can be harmful to the organism.
Eukaryotes are organisms made up of complex cells that have a true nucleus where the organism’s genetic information is stored, cytoskeleton and membrane bound organelles. It was believed that the first cell arose more than 3.85 billion years ago (Vellai ;Vida,1999). Eukaryotic cells are basically motile, some cells use cilia and other cells use flagella to move. Cilia and flagella are controlled by a cytoskeleton component made up of actin protein called microtubules and amoeba is controlled by microfilaments. Flagella move in a uniform undulation while cilia’s movement is a result of quick strokes and slow recoveries (Cappuccinelli,1980).

Humans have eukaryotic cells that become non-motile when they reach a certain age because they have developed into tissues and/ or organs, so no further growth factor signalling is required (Venkatesh,2017). Mutations can occur resulting in formation of cancerous cells that can migrate and initiate cancer in other parts of the body therefore motility of non-motile cells in adult tissues can result in cancer metastasis which is harmful to the organism.

Cilium found in the tissue lumen is considered as being non-motile, it coordinates signalling pathways such as ion channels that maintain the ion balance inside and outside of a cell and for growth factors production. Its signalling is essentially used in stem cell development of different tissues and can still result in cell movement when there is a tissue repair (Venkatesh,2017).
Mutations in genes that control cell division can occur during this tissue repairing resulting in an uncontrolled cell division known as cancer. Each cancer type has a different mutation marker for example mutated Ras protein remains activated all the time emanating in a continuous unregulated proliferation causing cancer and ensuring survival of cancer cells. Other mutations can inactivate two copies of a gene that restrain cell divisions from occurring or those that prevent the process of apoptosis, for example p53 protein that checks if there are mutations in the DNA and if it is mutated, no damage control will be implemented then rapid divisions can occur (O’Connor ; Adams,2014).

Alteration in genes offer cancer cells opportunities to progress since they can cause mechanisms that can prevent cancer cells from multiplying to be non-functional. Cancer cells in benign stage that is a “good”, non-invasive and non-metastatic cancer in an area in the body for example in the breast, but as it receives nutrients and more new mutations occurring it grows and can move to other body parts via a process of metastasis (O’Connor& Adams,2014).
Malignancy of a cancer can result from rapid continuous mutations and can also occur as result of the surroundings such as an infection from a virus that can change the host genome by integrating into it. Cancer cells that are malignant can invade and move into other tissues (Yokota,2000).
Metastasis occurs in various steps in which cancer cells from the original site of formation called primary cancer cells release enzymes that lyses the basal membrane of the infected tissue, for example the breast tissue, they move through the lysed membrane into the circulatory system where they are spread in the blood stream and there are adhesive interactions between cancer cells and blood cells which offer cancer cells protection so that they can survive in the blood. The blood vessel is then broken then the cancer cells are released into another tissue, for example the skin tissue. When the cancer grows in the new site it is referred to as the secondary tumour (Hout,2008).

Picture retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5953701_Selectins_and_selectin_ligands_in_extravasation_of_cancer_cells_and_organ_selectivity_of_metastasis.

Cancer is a result of unregulated cell development and its growth rate is increased by mutations that stops processes such as cell death that can suppress the growth of abnormal cells. Increased rate results in tumour formation, metastasis and invasion in other tissues therefore motility of non-motile eukaryotic cells is harmful to organisms even though it is necessary for tissue regeneration, it results in cancer that can kill the organism.

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