INTEGRITY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
Wireless Sensor Network:-wireless sensor network are present almost everywhere. It used for measuring some physical Parameters like temperature, pressure, sounds, chemical composition etc. A Wireless Sensor Network is a self-configuring network of small sensor nodes communicating among themselves using radio signals, and deployed in quantity to sense, monitor and understand the physical world. Wireless sensor network provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual worlds.
Types of Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor network are three types. which are given below:-
1. Terrestrial Wireless sensor network
2. Underground wireless sensor network
3. Mobile wireless sensor network
1. Terrestrial Wireless sensor network
Terrestrial Wireless sensor network are used for communicating base stations efficiency, and consist of hundred to thousand of wireless sensor nodes deployed either in unstructured or structured manner. In an unstructured mode, the sensor nodes are randomly distributed within the target area that is dropped from a fixed plane. The unstructured or structured mode considers optimal placement, grid placement, and 2D, 3D placement models.
In Wireless sensor network, the battery is limited. battery attached with solar cells as a secondary power source. The Energy conservation of Wireless sensor network is achieved by using low duty cycle operations, minimizing delays, and optimal routing, and so on.
2. Underground Wireless sensor network
The wireless sensor networks are more expensive than the terrestrial Wireless sensor network in terms of deployment, maintenance, and equipment cost considerations and careful planning. The Wireless sensor network networks consist of a number of sensor nodes that are hidden in the ground to monitor of the under condition.
3.Mobile Wireless sensor network
These networks collection of sensor nodes that can be moved on their own and can be interacted with the physical environment. The mobile nodes have the ability to compute sense and communicate. The mobile wireless sensor networks are much more versatile than the static sensor networks. The advantages of Mobile wireless sensor network over the static wireless sensor networks include better and improved coverage, better energy efficiency, superior channel capacity, and so on.
Limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks
1. very little storage capacity – a few hundred kilobytes
2. Possess modest processing power-8MHz
3. consumes a lot of power
4. Requires minimal energy – constrains protocols
5. Have batteries with a finite life time
6. Passive devices provide little energy
Integrity:-integrity concepts do not regard local cases which appears a likely case in the vehicle navigation domain. local integrity concept to overcome this problem in urban locations. However technical applicability using feasible resources is low. local integrity heat map that indicates possible urban canyons and estimate positioning error given the location and time of the measurement. Local integrity heat map is designed as a digital map attribute which will be used as other sensor information at the time of position sensor fusion to enhance localization and map matching. Real world field tests show that local integrity heat map is a good indicator of position fix error.
Integrity in wireless sensor network:-
integrity is an important in wireless sensor network. Sensor network one of the main requirement in wireless sensor network is the integrity of the received data at base station. source nodes send captured data to the base station through intermediate nodes. Data integrity is a core requirement for secure sensor data in Wireless sensor network. False or data would result in incorrect decisions and potentially financial losses. One of the major security challenges for Wireless sensor network is the conflict between the limited resources, e.g., computational capabilities, available power, and storage capacity at one hand and security requirements at the other hand. Most of the prior works on securing sensor networks use traditional security solutions that are based on cryptographic algorithms . These techniques usually execute thousands or even millions of multiplication instructions in order to perform operations like modular exponentiation. Consequently, they are too expensive and not suitable for sensors .
Protocol is based on a leapfrog strategy in which each cluster head verifies if its previous node has preserved the integrity of the packet using the secret key it shares with two hop up tree nodes. The proposed protocol is simple. The analysis and simulation results show that the protocol needs very few header bits, as low as three bits, thus resulting in negligible bandwidth overhead; the protocol poses very low computational overhead, it needs to compute just a hash as compared to multiple complex operations required by any cryptographic implementation for verifying authenticity.
A Wireless sensor network typically consists of base stations and a number of wireless sensors. Sensors are usually small in size, have limited computing capabilities, communicate wirelessly and are powered by small batteries. These sensors are scattered in a sensor field. Data from the sensor field is collected and sent to a base station. The base station then sends the data to the end users for analysis and strategic decisions. Base stations usually have unlimited power, sufficient memory, powerful processors and a high bandwidth link, in comparison to other sensor nodes . Wireless sensor network are used in many fields. For example, Wireless sensor network are used in military applications for monitoring friendly forces, battlefield surveillance, biological attack detection, troop coordination, and battle damage assessments. In environmental applications, sensors can be used to detect and monitor environment.
Threats and Attacks Model
The nature of wireless communication makes wireless networks more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. Wireless sensor network are often deployed in uncontrolled environments, which make it susceptible to physical tampering. The limited computational capabilities and energy resources are additional challenges that need to be dealt with in designing security scheme for Wireless sensor network. The following are the main threats on the integrity of the Wireless sensor network data :-
Data Modification Attack: An adversary modifies the value of one or more the data readings either by hijacking the sender sensor or inserting itself between the sender and receivers.
False Data Insertion: An adversary can compromise existing nodes and inject a false message with false information. It is also possible that the adversary add new nodes to the sensor networks that feed false data. Such attack also consumes the energy resources of other sensor nodes.
Data deletion: Data deletion attack can take place by dropping individual data readings or dropping one or more groups and preventing them from reaching to the intended recipient. Denial of Service: Denial of service attacks on a wireless sensor network may take on several forms, e.g., disrupting the radio link, misroute sensor data, or exhaust node resources. Section 5 shows how the proposed technique deals with each of the above attacks. All changes like tracking oil pollution.
1. Fault tolerant: The system should be robust against node failure. Some mechanism should be incorporated to indicate that the node is not functioning properly.
2. Scalable: The system should support large number of sensor nodes .
3. Long life: The nodes life-time entirely defines the networks life-time and it should be high enough. The sensor node should be power efficient against the limited power resource that it have since it is difficult to replace or recharge thousands of nodes.
4. Programmable: the reprogramming of sensor nodes in the field should be necessary to improve flexibility.
5. Secure: The node should support the following:
a Access Control: to prevent unauthorized attempts to access the node.
b Message Integrity: to detect and prevent unauthorized changes to the message.
c Confidentiality: to assure that sensor node should encrypt messages so only those nodes would listen who have the secret key.
6. Affordable: the system should use low cost devices since the network comprises of thousand of sensor nodes, tags and apparatus. Installation and maintenance of system elements should also be significantly low to make its deployment realistic.