Mixed Methods Research Assessment
Every year, hundreds of proposals regarding affordable housing, senior care, assisted living, transportation issues, and other similar worthy causes are distributed amongst an array of stakeholders, many of which are new to the topics and issues with which they are confronted. Paging through article after article, one may find that after considering many prior examples, that there may be some commonalities. At this point, it is left to the reader, to generate their own opinion, and that may occur after reading only a few case study examples. A more thorough review of case studies, validated by an actual hypothetical proposed project, in order to test the common factors theory, is the proposed scope of my research. The goal being to hasten the design, and decision-making process and to prepare, and provide a litmus test to evaluate whether the intended stakeholders will have staying power, throughout the entire process of an urban renewal development.
Historically, urban renewal planning issues generally are after the fact, meaning that they are meant to deal with problems that have taken years to manifest themselves. Typically the response, when there finally is a response, is one of taking a new look at an old problem. In fact, the problem of dealing with blighted property, or affordable housing, transportation issues, etc. may be new to some, and having no frame of reference there may be a tendency to take a fresh new approach. Consequently, the time to research such, when in fact many times, similar research, and similar urban redevelopment issues have been conducted many times over. One goal of my research, is to establish that there may be general themes, which may present themselves at any point, during the development of an urban renewal scheme of one sort of another (Yi-Kai, 2010).
There may be several categories, within each of which, there may be common threads. Stakeholders for one example. Typically, there are more than one stakeholder to deal with, the question being who are they, and what is there general level of influence. Financial resources may be an area of commonality. Increasingly so, there is a public/private consortium that is organized to finance a project. There may be other local resources that play a significant part.
Local citizenry and their response. Before any project moves past the designers sketch pad, there is usually a town hall-style planning board meeting. Identifying who the participants may be, and what concerns they may voice, could help anticipate objections, which could stall, if not thwart a project altogether. These are just a few of the shared components found in any urban renewal proposal.
The intention of my dissertation, is to assess, through case study analysis, common factors, such as those listed above. Create a matrix, that one may use, to test a hypothetical project, and have advance notice of issues that may confound the efforts. Then, test the assessment, by introducing an actual hypothetical development to a local community. By quantitative means, analyze the results of survey data, to determine if a close parallel exists between the hypothetical project, and conjecture offered through case study analysis. The results, may describe that the potential of a projects success may be determined in advance, by use of prior case study analysis data.
II. Literature summary.
A. Financial Component:
Described in the following article, is how a major stakeholder is the public/private joint method of land development.
Malizia, E. E. (2003). Structuring Urban Redevelopment Projects: Moving Participants Up the Learning Curve. Journal Of Real Estate Research, 25(4), 463-478.
In general, it is agreed that a public/private joint venture is the preferred, and most common form of urban redevelopment financing. However, as has been discussed in previous articles, the number of players involved in each deal has increased dramatically, complicating the process. Each part enters into the development equation, with a different set of expectations. Placating each without stepping on the toes, or demonstrating favoritism, become increasingly difficult. A few of the new organization that must be dealt with include Non-governmental organizations (NGO), Community Development Corporations (CDC), Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT) and others. To gather information for this paper, three separate venues were used. 1. Workshops with redevelopment project participants. 2. Focus Groups, 3. Follow up telephone interviews.
The findings were based on a series of hypothesis, formulated to be a question and answer format. In general, a consensus was reached with each group of participants, which is what led to an actual quantifiable response. An example of some of the questions include: Three primary reasons that risk is higher in distressed areas than suburban areas include, 1. Perception of risk is higher in distressed areas, 2. Capital budget for distressed redevelopment sites is more difficult than for greenfield sites, 3.
expectations for future development in distressed areas are more variable. The series of questions become more specific and detailed as the survey unfolds.
The usefulness that this research may have in my dissertation, is looking at what these concerns are of the various players. Then structure a project to address their needs individually. It’s not very much different, than how in competitive business strategy, one may seek to appease shareholders, and to do so, will try to find out what their prime concerns are. Addressing just one of the issues above, the matter of future development being more irregular and variable in a distressed area. It would behoove a planner to seek to establish realistically what future trends are, or to influence them perhaps with government type programs that provide some form of guarantee. This is really the only way to create redevelopment program, that can compete with more attractive regions, all vying for the same funding.
Further discussion concerning specific details of a public/private joint venture are discussed in the following article.
Leung, B. P., ; Hui, E. M. (2005). EVALUATION APPROACH ON PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) URBAN REDEVELOPMENTS. International Journal Of Strategic Property Management, 9(1), 1-16.
This paper proposes that there are two primary means to evaluating the return value of an urban development. That being Cost-Benefit Analysis, (CBA), and Option Pricing concepts (OP). A thorough description of what CBA actually is, was not found in the presentation. Typically however, funding other sources, CBA is defined as a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives. CBA is understood to be a long-standing means to estimate costs, and look at various options concerning any business enterprise, including land development. Use of CBA, and found in various case studies, is a propensity toward underestimated costs. Attributed to primarily 4 areas. Technical, Economic, Psychological, and Political. Options pricing theory, if integrated into CBA, allows for a measure of flexibility, and options for altered future developments, should economic conditions require. Thereby mitigating the risk. The resulting process, is a hybrid of development, where there are 4 identifiable stages.
The initial stage. costs on turning the area into develop-able land and building the infrastructure, etc,
Collection of land and construction of the infrastructure – timing of land and transport infrastructure redevelopments is important.
Construction of the superstructure- superstructure redevelopment can be separated into phases.
Release of the properties and facilities to occupants
– flexibility should be installed to switch the use of the property to its best alternative use if an adverse
environment is encountered
The overriding of this strength is to mitigate the effect of two detrimental factors, that may interrupt or hinder and development. 1. Social conflict, by ignoring social aspects and impact that a new development may have on the community. 2. Contract flexibility. To allow developers to tailor their development to respond to market changes and uncertainty.
The case study used to highlight this hybrid development system, was the London Docklands project of 1974. The sequence of events, which propelled this project forwarded, began a strategic plan of development (1974). this primarily market led program, was intended to seek private investment, by creating circumstances that would favor private development. This initial plan was designed to be flexible from the start, and create enterprise initiatives, to provide an attractive private investment environment. Introduced here, was what was called Leverage planning. Public investment in infrastructure, in order to encourage private market property value, and stimulate development. The overall project, failed to identify social costs, hence there was a significant understatement of ultimate associated costs. A similar situation applied to development of the transportation infrastructure. The costs associated exceed estimates by a large percentage. The most important factors affecting development good and bad, were effects from the local economy. During hard times, the project virtually came to a standstill. Many of the developers went bankrupt, in hindsight, had they exercised, or included options that allowed for flexible development, rather than being locked into, for the time being anyway, a losing proposition, the effects of a slow economy may have been mitigated.
Ultimately, the article identified several key factors for a smoother development.
Avoid promoters bias in applying CBA.
Balance private and social needs
Accessibility (transportation) of the development area
Embedding operations options for a changing environment adjustment
TIF funding has been used successfully by many communities, to help finance urban renewal, in fact broad array of community development projects. This article helps to describe some of the features of TIF financing, and how they may be a potential source of funding.
ARMBRISTER, M. (2013). Urban renewal in Fort Collins’ Midtown. Northern Colorado Business Report, 18(10), 5-25.
Tax Incremental Financing is described as a crucial incentive in this case study urban redevelopment example. In this instance, a former Toys R Us is renovated to be an bustling new shipping mall. A fairly detailed breakdown of the financial aspects of the project is provided in the article. This and other projects proposed for Ft. Collins Co. use some of the most recent trends in urban design to draw a growing segment of the population. Specifically, reorienting the city from being “auto-centric”, to one which is more transit-oriented and tries to make greater use of walking, bicycling and so on. Community leaders agree, that the area needs more than just a new shopping mall. However, in an attempt to encourage future development, this and any other similar type development is welcome. In general, towns and cities offer TIF incentives, as a means to help improve the local tax base with these new projects. Developers are entitled to borrow against the amount of money their project is projected to bring to the community. In this instance, the Urban Renewal Area for midtown Ft. Collins is expected to bring in $8 million dollars, the developers were able to borrow $5 Million.
There are some restrictions imposed on development. In the instance of the Toys R US building renovation, the restriction is that the development must remain retail. The stumbling block here, is that a new use for the building would have included light industrial, but in doing so, would have required converting from retail to light industrial. A move that would be subject to considerable debate within city government as well as citizen participation. This would delay project start, and thwart many would be developers. Another program offered to help incentivize development, is the inclusion of a Building Improvement District (BID). These are tax tools, where there is an elevated tax, within a specific zone or region, to offset the cost of specialized infrastructure improvement,
Any of the tactics mentioned in the article, are good to reference for future development prospects. Its likely that any development would be a combination of programs, public and private investment, and to look at the novel programs employed elsewhere, may have applicability at some point.
B. Historical look at local citizenry and their concerns.
The long history of efforts by both Federal and State and Local administrations, have left a long and well-documented trail of case study evidence. A few of the articles which describe past issues are shown here.
Lang, C. (2008). Civil Rights Versus “Civic Progress”. Journal of Business History, Vol. 34 No. 4, May 2008 pp. 609-638 DOI: 10.1177/0096144207313674
A constant and persistent criticism of urban development projects, is that there is a displacement of poor black working-class population. St. Louis , in particular Fergusen, have been in the news in recent years, for race-related riots and ensuing property destruction. This article takes an historical viewpoint, looking at the 1957 development of a new municipal center. In an attempt to thwart the project, activists banded together and founded a campaign, supported by the St. Louis branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
The argument seems to stem, from the perception, and perhaps reality, where black working-class communities, are marginalized by restructuring of municipal government and planned downtown development. Historically, post-war St. Louis, was one of the nations most segregated cities. However, while the claims of racial inequality are blamed for the fact that many blacks were blocked from managerial positions, and even most forms of federal aid, these symptoms really only mirror, the prevailing national posture of the time. Yet St. Louis persisted in keeping its heritage of 1950’s segregation well into 1970’s. The broader implications of this persistent segregation led to attempts to rectify the inequity. Teamsters, and the coca-cola company, negotiated to hire more black employee’s. There was passage of a Fair Employment Practice. The clamoring ;ed to greater strength by the NAACP, and their Black Freedom Movement. Large-scale urban development, was first noted in the 1947 reform movement, started by the St. Louis City Plan Commission. Publishing a report, stating that the city of St. Louis was virtually uninhabitable, due to blight covering half of the residential area. To fight this, and deal with the desperation of losing scores of industrial jobs, by the 1950’s the St. Louis Land Clearance for Redevelopment Authority was given the responsibility to acquire land, demolish relate, and facilitate the sale of cleared properties to private developers. Sweeping change was proposed, leading to massive redevelopment, by a six to one vote margin, funding was approved. Objection to the development proposals, seemed to morph, from what was to be wholesale clearing of slums, to a complaint that blacks had been barred from better jobs, therefore creating the slums. The topic of urban redevelopment, became highly politicized. No matter how well-intentioned, no matter how well designed, these new developments were doomed from the start due to long-standing political tensions.
It’s amazing the scale of the projects proposed as part of St. Louis redevelopment. Armed with million from a City of St. Louis bond issue, and $21 million from the Federal government, the Mill Valley clearance project started, forcing 20,000 blacks to relocate. In short, plans for urban redevelopment, of the scale found in St. Louis, ultimately prevailed to some degree, and to the benefit of the displaced minorities, resulted in greater organization, to help promote and realize social goals. In essence, a quid pro quo, negotiated solution evolved and led to implementation of civic progress.
Historical look at local citizenry and their concerns.
It is interesting to note, in some instances affordable housing initiatives actually stem from larger scale social movements. Whether the impetus to provide affordable housing emanates from social movement, or from practical human welfare concerns, the stakeholders that actually make a project a reality remain the same.
Grantmyre, L. (2015). Ideas, Actors, Conflicts, and Contexts Matter: Postwar Planning in American Urban History. Journal of Urban History . Vol 41, Issue 5, pp. 936 – 942 https://doi- org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177%2F0096144215589935
Case studies in this article, include three famous and historically significant urban renewal projects. Redevelopment and race relations in Detroit, San Francisco’s waterfront, Prudential Center in Boston.
In Detroit, one cannot even begin to look at land redevelopment, without considering social movements. There is a perpetual conflict, between the vision of what could be, and what brought on the distress in the first place. Finger pointing persists to this day, while buildings crumble, and population dwindles. While everyonce and a while, a developer picks up, and revitalizes a particularly good deal. Detroit issues began in the 30’s, and even though there was at the time, recognition of a looming problem, planners efforts to stabilize property values, and protect middle-class tax base, failed. Any effort to redevelop, or expand existing institutions, such as Detroit Medical Center, were met with extreme resistance. In essence, dismantling of what were see as discriminatory practise’s must first occur, before any sort of redevelopment could proceed. In San Francisco, different forces object to progress and waterfront development. Probably the most influential factor, was the modernization of shipping, and use of stackable shipping containers. Oakland’s newer port, was able to accommodate larger ships, 0ffered deeper water, and handling of shipping containers. The cost to modify San Francisco’s port to do the same, was fairly enormous. Ultimately, despite a myriad of plans, many of which incorporated high rise housing, which block scenic views of the bay, the main proponent to San Francisco’s redevelopment, was the 1970’s creation of the Waterfront Planning Advisory Board. Cutting through red tape, helped foster rapid development. This is a good lesson to consider for any new urban developments. It may be necessary to create a quasi-government board or at least “go to person”, in order to help would be developers deal with regulation and restrictions. In Boston, key to the success of revitalization of Boston’s Back Bay, was Prudential portrayal proposed Prudential center, as public good. What provided the financial incentive, were laws drafted by states, to encourage insurance companies to invest in urban redevelopment projects. Particularly those which cleared slums. Prudential rejuvenated American cities, by building regional home office buildings within city limits. The architectural design, siting, and other highly visible attributes made the buildings an advertisement in and of itself. An interesting concept to explore, when hoping to attract investment. Tax concessions earned, by convincing city leaders, that its developments were for the public good, helped to spur these ambitious development plans.
Stemming from Prudential plans for urban redevelopment projects, came a new definition of what blight is. Technically speaking, blight is any condition that made private development prohibitively expensive. Whats evident from each of these project, is a hand in hand association with local government, and political leaders, in order to achieve development proposal goals.
C. Other related articles include:
Pelligra (2017). 20 noteworthy urban renewal projects – Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.pelligra.com/20-noteworthy-urban-renewal-projects-part-1/
Freedman, L. (2016). Duke Energy awards nearly $240,000 to kick-start 10 urban redevelopment projects in Ohio and Kentucky. Retrieved from https://news.duke- energy.com/releases/duke- energy-awards-nearly-240-000-to-kick-start-10-urban- redevelopment-projects-in-Ohio-and- Kentucky
Barkacs, L. L., ; Barkacs, C. B. (2007). KELO V. CITY OF NEW LONDON: IS EMINENT DOMAIN FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC USE OR PUBLIC ABUSE?. Journal Of Legal, Ethical ; Regulatory Issues, 10(1), 31-41.
Weise, K. (2014). The Deal to Sell 6,000 of Detroit’s Blighted Properties Falls Apart. Bloomberg.Com, 1.
Shih-Kung, L., Jhong-You, H., & Haoying, H. (2017). Land Development Decisions and Lottery Dependent Utility. Real Estate Finance (Aspen Publishers Inc.), 34(2), 39-45.
III. Gaps and/or deficiencies in prior research
No question that there is ample documentation of past, and even present projects. Generally the commentary is a critique, and many times the evaluation is unfavorable. A qualitative sense of reasoning is most often applied when seeking to describe the results of a successfully completed project. However, rarely is there ever a comparison, or any sort of competitive scorecard when evaluating a completed project, or when giving an historical viewpoint. Most of the reviews and articles are very narrowly focused on specific elements of each project. A more expansive outlook may see that there are common issues, that are sometimes resolved, and many that are not.
IV. Importance of present study
Following decades of experience, and studies surrounding the issues of how best to restore and reinvigorate America’s inner city environment, this study will apply of all that has been tried, in a systematic manner, focusing on Chicago’s abandoned and derelict communities. It is believed that a mulch-faceted approach, whereby communities are sub-divided by characteristic and amenities, that individual application of many previously established approaches, in a flexible planning posture, may help alleviate some of the symptoms of this persistent and pervasive issue.
First approach will be from an historical viewpoint. Many large projects have sprouted from the good intentions of civic leaders to make a difference in their prospective communities, and failed. Studies evaluating the success and failure grapple with the reasons why. While it may be too late to apply the reasons for failure to these already completed projects, understanding
what was done right, and what could have been better, will initiate some of the preplanned considerations for these existing blighted areas.
Further analysis will look at a blighted area, on a block by block, street by street, and if necessary building by building basis. With a flexible approach in mind, tailor a response to encouraging restoration by looking at case by case objectives, and opportunities. Rather than a catch-all, sweeping, one size fits all, planning approach (Glenn, 2017). It may be necessary, to consider national defense and the role of terrorism prevention, in the design and planning of communities as well (Light, 2004). Create a response environment all-encompassing of prior experiences. Greater emphasis on broadening the scope of applicability, of previous examples.
It is the intent of this proposed research, by means of case study review, achieve the means to apply previous solutions, to current problems. First however, issues confronting blighted communities need to be simplified, in order that a systems of categories, each with specific characteristics, is identified. For example, let’s say there are 5 distinct categories of surplus housing. In fact, there will be many more categories, and subcategories, to start with, 5 categories. Attributed to each of the categories, will be both actual solutions applied, and theoretical solutions as yet untried. Ultimately the goal of research is application to a real-world scenario, in a proposal to affect change to a specific problem land area, by means of urban renewal strategies. Aided by discussion and description of ways and means to evaluate and create a new solution, based on readily accessible, categorized data. Research Methodology: Thorough use of existing publications Professional journals, news articles, blogs, and other publications to be used in collecting data.
It is believed, that ultimately, the stakeholders of all sides, are in fact on the same side, and fighting the same battle, that being provide a means to living and subsistence, enabling one to be part of society, or if disabled, live out the rest of their natural life with dignity. Were that not the case, the tone of the research would take on a distinctly different rationale, that being to determine fault and who is right and wrong. As it is the scope of the research is simply to foretell of likely obstacles and to provide a path, based on prior examples.
One of the more prominent limitations observed thus far, is the polarity of commentary regarding urban redevelopment. Many early Federal projects are verbally ripped to pieces figuratively speaking. There is never a perspective from the standpoint of financing, or construction costs, labor issues etc. All of these factors are so very fundamental to any project, the fact that any one organization was successful in gathering together all the resources, and manpower to build a significant development, regardless of whether it was perfect and suited to each and everyone’s particular tastes, is never really considered. From a purely subjective standpoint, no one is throwing money away, and it’s not easy to raise tens of millions of dollars, and organize hundreds of professional and construction personnel, to build what albeit, is a not for profit entity. Essays concerning past urban renewal projects, are generally heavily weighed toward the unfavorable side, when in fact, all of the projects were successful at putting roofs over the families in need.
While many of the limitations are expressed in qualitative terms, the best means to validate these critical comments and evaluations, represented in case studies, will be by means of a matrix, where quantitative data is used to validate observations. Such as, how many families were actually housed by the new development? How many jobs were directly created by the construction? What compelling issues which led the need for an urban renewal project, were actually achieved successfully? Are there long-term tax benefits to the community?
Correlating the results of previous urban renewal developments, providing a basis for analysis and evaluating future development proposals, and having tested the evaluation process through an actual hypothetical urban renewal development, will provide knowledge that can be applied universally.
V. Significance of Study
Providing those who may be contemplating an urban renewal project, or who are asked to participate in the process, with a guide to understanding what they may be confronted with, will enable quick and decisive decision making, by limiting dependence on heuristic thinking. Rather than having to invent new strategies, or to experience some of the issues which have confronted previous developments, here provided with similar analysis derived from numerous case study, these individuals have full access to a wealth of historical data from which to draw their own conclusion. Review of the case study data that has already been compiled, will be used to draw a hypothesis. An if/then logic will prevail, where if there are present the following circumstances, be it stakeholders, or physical property limitations or opportunities, then one might expect the following response. The response that is derived from these case studies will be tested in a quantitative manner, using an actual hypothetical project proposal.
Research Question restated
Is it possible to correlate previous solutions to address current housing issues? The vast number of solutions, responding to infinitely variable problems associated with surplus or sub-standard structures, can be codified, categorized, and applied where appropriate, if the means to do so is available and the problems addresses are categorized.
Research framework expanded
It is the intent of this proposed research, by means of case study review, achieve the means to apply previous solutions, to current problems. First however, issues confronting blighted communities need to be simplified, in order that a system of categories, each with specific characteristics, is identified. For example, let’s say there are 5 distinct categories of surplus housing. In fact, there will be many more categories, and subcategories, to start with 5 categories. Attributed to each of the categories, will be both actual solutions applied, and theoretical solutions as yet untried. That is the crux of the research. Not to offer a solution, but rather the means to evaluate and create a new solution, based on readily accessible, categorized data.
A. Preliminary test of a survey instrument
The final test, of correlated case study common components, will be a survey of community response, in consideration of a hypothetical proposed urban renewal development. For this stage of the process, I have used a Telephone survey.
A. Having assembled a brief sampling of nearby business owners, to test the initial response, by asking generalized questions, I set out to determine a consensus. However minuscule the sampling base is. I had considered various means and tools for conducting this preliminary survey. Including in person, sidewalk meet and greet style interviews, posting a notice on popular community notice boards, such as found at Peets Coffee. Alternately, sending out postcards or mailers. All of these tools may be utilized later, for a more in-depth survey of the neighborhood. However, for now, not wanting to create a stir among the local population regarding a hypothetical development, I decided to confine the survey district, to just several select businesses, in an anonymous telephone call survey (Walden, 2016). I was pleased to have a response rate of 50%! Of the 8 selected participants, 2 were unable to be contacted, either closed at the time I call or out of business. 1 declined due to corporate policy, another simply declined to comment. Results of the 4 response candidates are shown below.
Fig. 1. Survey district
B. Response from telephone survey:
Possible survey questions.
Directed at a few local business owners and residents (anonymous if necessary):
1. Using whatever criteria you want, would you find the prospect of affordable housing in your
vicinity, if appropriately designed to blend with the community desirable, or undesirable?
2. Have you or any of your customers found parking to be a problem?
3. Do you, or do you have customers that routinely use Metra for commuting?
4. Have you any concerns regarding traffic congestion along Green Bay Ave. in Winnetka?
5. Do you anticipate or foresee that the Winnetka CBD will grow an prosper in the years to come?
List of potential businesses to contact and their response:
1. Neopolitan Collection: Did not wish to participate
560 Chestnut St, Winnetka, IL 60093 neapolitanonline.com (847) 441-7784
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
2. Marian Micheal not available/no answer
566 Chestnut St, Winnetka, IL 60093 (847) 446-1177
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
3. Good Grapes (847) 242-9800
821 Chestnut Ct, Winnetka, IL 60093 goodgrapes.com
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
Fig. 2. Good Grapes tally
4. Spynergy Inc. not available/no answer
813 Oak St, Winnetka, IL 60093 spynergychicago.com (847) 441-8024
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
5. Kaehler Luggage and Travel Goods (847) 501-3990
553 Chestnut St, Winnetka, IL 60093 worldtraveler.com
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
Fig. 3 Kaehler Luggage response
6. BloDry Boutique (224) 255-6611
552-554 Lincoln Ave, Winnetka, IL 60093 blowdryboutiques.com
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
Fig. 4 Blo Dry Boutique response
7. Peets Coffee Did not wish to participate
817 Elm St, Winnetka, IL 60093 locations.peets.com (224) 255-2125
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
8. Lakeside Foods
800 Elm St, Winnetka, IL 60093 lakeside-foods.com (847) 446-7720
1. Y/N 2. Y/N 3. Y/N 4. Y/N 5. Y/N
Fig. 5 Lakeside Foods response.
Fig. 6 Survey Graph results
C. Preliminary survey instrument test
What the preliminary test points out, is that a telephone survey is an effective means of gathering limited response data, provided the questionnaire is kept brief (Roster, 2007). In the final analysis, the telephone survey will be supplemented with a mailer, to local residents within one mile of the proposed hypothetical project. The reason for the follow-up survey is to evaluate, whether the analysis of likely events to confront a proposed development, as established through case study research will be correlated through an actual hypothetical case study proposal.
The means to recoding the results will be spreadsheet graphs and charts, which will take the quantitative data, and produce a visualization to clarify the results, and make a comparison.
One possible scenario of what I expect to achieve is as follows. According to case study research conducted thus far, a major concern of nearby residents, of an urban redevelopment project, is the effect the development will have on their property values. This being a major concern, can stop a development in its tracks, if the development is perceived to not enhance the community at large. Prediction based on case study research being, local residents will likely object to an urban development, at face value. However, if it can be shown that the development would enhance their community, the outcome can be quite different. That is the qualitative aspect of the research. Quantitative analysis will establish to what extent urban renewal project actually enhance neighboring communities, and if so, to what extent.
Evidence of Quality
The sheer number of prior case studies in itself will help to establish a level of quality and credibility. These case studies are drawn from the Walden Library of resources and are not in anyone selected according to any particular prior coding, other than required to be in the related topics of urban renewal. As such, the random nature of the articles, selected from thousands of available entries, assures a reasonable level of impartiality. In essence application of both an intensity and maximum-variation strategy (Gutterman, 2017).
Light, J.S. (2004) Urban Planning and Defense Planning, Past and Future, Journal of the American Planning Association, 70:4, 399-410, DOI: 10.1080/01944360408976390
Lowe, K., & Sciara, G. (2018). Chasing TIGER: Federal Funding Opportunities and Regional Transportation Planning. Public Works Management & Policy, 23(1), 78-97. doi:10.1177/1087724X17732583
Yi-Kai, J., Roper, K. O., Castro-Lacouture, D., & Kim, J. H. (2010). Optimal decision making on urban renewal projects. Management Decision, 48(2), 207-224. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1108/00251741011022581
Roster, C. A., Rogers, R. A., Hozier,George C.,,Jr, Baker, K. G., & Albaum, G. (2007). MANAGEMENT OF MARKETING RESEARCH PROJECTS: DOES DELIVERY METHOD MATTER ANYMORE IN SURVEY RESEARCH? Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15(2), 127-144. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search-proquest- com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/docview/212205618?accountid=14872
Guetterman, T. C. (2017). What distinguishes a novice from an expert mixed methods researcher? Quality and Quantity, 51(1), 377-398. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s11135-016-0310-9