Population generally can be define as the collection of organisms in particular geographical area average population of Pakistan till year 2017 is 209.97million. current population of Pakistan is 200,183,383. Current male population is 50.8% and female population is 49.2%. birth value in current year is 1,630,400 and death rate is 411,984. Net migration this year is -66290. And total growth rate is 1,152,138.
Rapid population is a major problem that confronts Pakistan as it focus on county’s social, economical , political conditions in 1947 former east and west Pakistan was 3rd most popular country in the world with reference to population that is 32.5 million today Pakistan consider as 6th most popular with a population of 180 million by 2020 it can be expected that population may be beyond the mark this will create problems as limited resources to carry out requirements of its people.
Pakistan’s population rate is 2.05% per year which is the highest rate in Asia. No developmental plan can sustain such high rate of population growth. Since 1960 government made efforts to check the unrestrained population growth but their efforts didn’t produce any significant results .If this critical situation to be change Pakistan has to focus on reducing its population to sustainable level in long term ( express tribune)
Over population can be describe as increase number of existing humans where as capacity of earth to carry people is less than number of existing individuals. There are many factors which promote overpopulation. Advances in technology has effected humanity in many ways that provide ability to save lives better medical facilities which enhance growth of population. In past few years growth rate boomed in a way that causes overpopulation and. In past history of species birth and death rate always balance each and maintain a population growth rate that is sustainable.
Causes of overpopulation:
? Decline in death rate
? Better medical facilities
? Technological advances in fertility treatment
? More hands to overcome poverty
? Lack of family planning
At overpopulation first root cause is imbalance between death rate and birth rate when both rates are unequal it causes unsustainable population. Discovery of agricultural land make unable to people to do hunting and fulfill their nutrition without hard work and it causes overpopulation
Industrial revolution and technological advances made almost every disease defeatable . combining the increase of food supply with fewer mortality rate cause starting point of overpopulation.
Natural disasters or simply in need of more hands to work are major cause of overpopulation . in past years most of extra children survive and used resources that are not sufficient in nature.
Technological advances made easier artificial methods of fertility treatment to cause creation of more individuals which causes as overall overpopulation
Many people are doing immigration from backward areas to developed areas which causes those areas be overcrowded and is a major cause of overpopulation
Most illiterate people in this era still getting their children married in early ages and causes more chances of children which causes overpopulation
Effects of over population :
? Depletion of natural resources
? Degradation of environment
? Conflicts and wars
? High cost of living
The effect of overpopulation is so severe that earth is producing limited resources that is food, water etc now people cutting down forests and other resources to make their lives which cause depletion of natural resources and causes pollution as well
With overuse of coal, oil natural gas it causes problems in environment overuse of vehicles causes increase in CO2 due to which global warming is increasing ozone layer depletion causes many serious health issues
Due to limited resources there is a war and conflict between different countries for resources that is water food etc
Due to the imbalance between demand and supply of resources living costs are increasing that is food, shelter, and health care.
Problems associated with over population :
Health problems are major problems which is associated with overpopulation as there are limited food resources to fulfill the nutritional needs of people due to overpopulation resources become limited and many people couldn’t be able to fulfill their needs and it causes malnutrition
Due to limited resources people are progressing towards crime to fulfill their needs as a result it causes increase in crimes in society and as well it also cause fear among people.
Due to overpopulation pollution also increasing and it causes global warming effect. which causes many diseases like eyes problems and cancer etc.
Rise in unemployment due to over burden of people. Because there are fewer jobs to support people and as a result it causes unemployment among people.
Economy of Pakistan and population issues :
Due to the overpopulation in country there is a mark fall in economy of state and along with that many other problems are also arising that is terrorism lack of literacy and adverse health issues.
According to the national nutrition survey in Pakistan about 60% of population facing food insecurity of these 50% of women and children were facing malnourishment yet there is a very little study or attention focus on pakistan’s population and it focus on development. Another major problem in addressing Pakistan population is week demographic data. In national conference it is addreses that focus should be on educating women and children f state. So that these challenges may be overcome and economy may also be improved. Reduction of crime and unemployment can also be enhanced
Due to the overpopulation there is a low capital income which effects country economy. Per capital income of Pakistan is 479 dollars as compared to japan that is 27000 dollars and of singapore is 14000 dollars
When country become overpopulated its rate of saving become very low as a result there is a decline in investment and employment . the rate of savings in Pakistan 15% which is very low overpopulation also causes many problems in health sector it also creates housing problems as housing facilities are not available for whole of the population.
It also creates transportation problems as government has no resources to provide better transportation facility for whole population.
According to the IMF report 2015 water demand is increasing so it goes upto 274 million acre feet by 2025. Pakistan will become water scare pointed out by dr Ghulam rassol director general of Paksitan metrological department.
Rising population is also cause of poverty because of limited resources low income and more needs give rise to poverty. According to report on multidimensional poverty launched by ministery of planning , development and reforms nearly 39% of Pakistanis living in multidimensional poverty.
Due to the overpopulation we consume more and save less that means amount which is for investment of economic growth and advancement is too little because to grow 6% we need 25% investment rate if we wnant to rely on domestic savings saving rate should be 25%. Last year india’s saving rates recorded as 35% and china is of 50% so as a nation overpopulation and consumption of more resources may b an alarming sign for country
Due to rise in population people have to face water shortage and energy shortage as well from the losses of KESC from the point people are paying 40 to 50% for those who stealing electricity. Govt due to his own limited resources is paying 200 billion rupees for subsidiary for electricity every year. Industry faces disadvantage as they have got order from foreign countries but not be able to execute order because there is electricity outages we are shortage of water due inspite of this lose water is still distributing inequitable.
Security issues rises as crime rate is increasing due to people are unable to get desired things and for getting their all wishes true they used unfair resources and unfair ways they used to do crime stealing others right in any way.
After considering all above situations ad problems it can be inferred that population rise is a biggest problem in Pakistan and it also give birth to all other issues as well for example shortage of resources unemployment. Poverty degradation of environment depletion of natural resources and many more health issues. There should be solution for this major problem which is spread like a viral for the solution there is a need to take steps on national as well as on individual basis. So, that this problem and along side with this all other issues may sort out.
Solutions to overpopulation :
Awareness among people
More savings and rely on local resources
Tax benefits or concessions
Savings of natural resources
Promote women empowerment
Better health and safety conditions
More employment opportunities
Prohibited child labor
Literacy rate among people specially in backward areas should be promoted education system should be more and more promotes so that people may become literate about family planning. As those families who couldn’t afford more than 2 child they should educate about this. Generation abilities should be utilized for the social well being of country
Awareness among people about family planning should be promoted so that families can understand that this causes overpopulation and ultimately this overcrowded population can give birth to other major issues.
We should save natural resources avoid to cut down the forests to make different resident areas. We should also save economical resources so that it may be used later when needed. And rely on local resources like that we should promote local transport to promote our economy in this way oil resources may also be saved.
Govt should come with such policies related to tax exemptions to curb population. One of them might be the lowering the tax rate for those couples who have 2 children may be this produce somehow positive results. Natural resources degradation must be avoided. In this way ecological system may also be promoted.
Women empowerment should be promoted so, that they may also get involved in planning. They must serve the country in their profession. So their talent may also be utilized for well being of state.
Govt should provide better health conditions and safety conditions so control over different diseses and crimes may be done. More employment opportunities be provided to people of state so, that poverty can be overcome.
Child labor must be prohibited and education for all must be implemented all the children from all status must be educated with quality and free education so, they may become usefull asset for country. Screening tests may be prove helpful for mothers during pregnancy they may become aware of their children condition if there would be any chance of disability they should be prepared mentally.