RFID

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) Concept, Applications, and Limitations

Ghaith Mohammad Ghannam U15106500
Mubasher Raziq U15106503
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
University of Sharjah
Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Ahmad Safaa U15101078
Mohammad Salem U15101156
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
University of Sharjah
Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Abstract—Radio-Frequency Identification technology revolutionized how industries and applications is conducted. The paper gives a brief introduction about RFID and we will be discussing about the origins of RFID. Furthermore, we summarize the applications, types of RFID, their advantages, and their limitations.
I. INTRODUCTION
The creation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) wasn’t recent, but it became more useable these days because of the associated applications with its functionality. RFID is a form of wireless system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify and track tags attached to an object. RFID uses the wave propagation and electromagnetic waves as a principle of operation, on each unit of RFID which is referred to by “tag” has microchip, antenna and interconnection, they operate together in order to implement the RFID’s most important feature which operating at a distance where no direct connection is required between the sender and receiver. To enhance the discrimination between different tags, each tag has an Electric Product Code (EPC) that is different from tag to another, this code provides security means for the data on the tags and it provides an anti-collision algorithm, which will lead into another feature of RFID which is the ability to read multiple tags at the same time. Different platforms and applications started to be implemented based on RFID while some other are still under progress, where they are trying to take the RFID technology to the next level.
II. HISTORY OF RADIO-FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
The origin RFID trace back in the 19th century where it was the era of scientific discoveries specifically in electromagnetic waves. The foundation of radio communication was established by the discoveries and the formulation of many scientists in the field of electromagnetism. First applications of radio frequency identification were during World War II by the British Royal Air Force. Using RFID systems, they invented the Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) that aided pilots in identifying enemy’s plane from an ally during the war. Later, the radio frequency identification was later used as an electronics detection device for commercial use, which used a magnetic device found inside the commercial products that aided security.
III. APPLICATIONS
Early use of RFID was mainly in automatic tracking of trains, automobile, planes, and cargo ships. Since RFID is more durable and efficient they were used on railroad cars as an alternative for optical bar code as they deteriorate and get obscured by dirt, as for RFID could offer more functionality or obtain better information rather than simple identification. In later years, RFID was used in many other applications such as toll collection in the United States where they ameliorated toll collecting by adding RFID chips helped in reducing the road congestion at toll collecting booths. In 1990, as the manufacturing cost of RFID decremented they were further used as tags for pets and livestock to monitor them continuously. An idea of implanting RFID chips inside humans that can be used to monitor the human cardiovascular activities.
As the usage of RFID became more common and the manufacturing cost decreased, clothing stores started using RFID chips as an antitheft device. Other major Application for RFID was in supply chain which made it easy for suppliers to manufacture, transport, and distribute goods to customers.
IV. RFID COMPONENTS
When someone hears the word RFID technology will directly lean towards to focus only on tag devices. It is more important to view RFID as a whole system that includes not only tags, but also other significant components. RFID systems essentially consist of four elements: the RFID tags, the RFID readers, the antennas and choice of radio characteristics, and a micro processing chip that is used to link the readers.
A. Abbreviations and Acronyms (Heading 2)
Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE and SI do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
V. ADVANTAGES
RFID is not likely to completely replace commonly used barcodes soon, but the followingadvantages suggest you why to apply RFID for identification:
• Tag detection doesn’t require human interference which reduces employment costs and eliminates human errors while collecting data.
• RFID supports tag reading with no line of sight or item by item scans required, and have a longer read range than, e. g., barcodes.
• RFID tags can be combined with actuators.
• Tags can locally store additional information; such distributed data storage may increase fault tolerance of the entire system.
• It cannot be easily replicated, and therefore, increases the security on a product.
VI. LIMITATIONS
Although RFID has many advantages as we observed, it’s still an electronic device that has limitations and specialists are already working to solve these limitations.
A. Cost
RFID tags are widely used due to the decreasing cost over time. However, although its cheap in cost, it still requires an investment to install on goods and products. So, for small retailing shops its inefficient to use RFID technology as it doesn’t always pay off. Furthermore, RFID tags require power consumption which as well increases the cost of installing tags.
B. Standardization
No RFID standardization controlling the communication protocol and the amount of data stored in the tags. The absence of these standards creates a lot of issues, meaning there is no international standards between partners that will agree on standards concerning communications protocols, signal modulation type, and data transmission rate.
C. Collisions
Reading multiple tags simultaneously will create collisions which leads to data loss and corruption. Preventing these collisions require sophisticated algorithms that will come at an extra cost.
D. Frequency
Since RFID tags and readers communicate within each other through radio frequencies, error may occur. Transmission mode will effect on the reading range between the tag and the reader thus effecting the design freedom. Another problem with frequency is that depends on the material of the object (for example if the material is metal it will defect the data transfer).
VII. CONCLUSION
The creation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) wasn’t recent, but it became more useable these days because of the associated applications with its functionality. RFID is a form of wireless system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify and track tags attached to an object. RFID uses the wave propagation and electromagnetic waves as a principle of operation, on each unit of RFID which is referred to by “tag” has microchip, antenna and interconnection, they operate together in order to implement the RFID’s most important feature which operating at a distance where no direct connection is required between the sender and receiver. To enhance the discrimination between different tags, each tag has an Electric Product Code (EPC) that is different from tag to another, this code provides security means for the data on the tags and it provides an anti-collision algorithm, which will lead into another feature of RFID which is the ability to read multiple tags at the same time. Different platforms and applications started to be implemented based on RFID while some other are still under progress, where they are trying to take the RFID technology to the next level.
REFERENCES
1 The Rfid Technology And Its Current Applications, by E. Ilie-Zudor1, Z. Kemeny, P. Egri and L. Monostori)
2 RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): Principles and Applications, by Stephen A. Weis
3 Understanding Rfid Technology, by Simson Garfinkel and Henry HoltzmanK. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished.
4 RFID Technology Principles, Advantages, Limitations & Its Applications, by Mandeep Kaur, Manjeet Sandhu, Neeraj Mohan and Parvinder S. Sandhu