settlement house a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U

settlement house
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women’s and labor movements.

Chautauqua movement
helped benefit adults in education. This was launched in 1874 on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, in New York. The organizers achieved success through nationwide public lectures, often held in tents and featuring well-known speakers, including Mark Twain. In addition, there were extensive Chautauqua courses of home study, for which 100,000 persons enrolled in 1892 alone. This movement contributed to the development of American faith in formal education.

Alger
a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous “rags to riches” theme.

Twain
He was America’s most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the “Gilded Age”. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.

Catt
She was a leader of the women’s suffrage movement. She was not successful in accomplishing her goal, but she did spark a movement that would eventually lead to women’s right to vote.

populist party
began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political unfairness. They used a progressive platform. James B. Weaver ran as their presidential candidate in 1892. They had an impressive voter turnout. They were also known as the People’s Party.

Sioux Wars
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer’s forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.

Ghost Dance
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into “white” citizens. It did little good.

Battle of Wounded Knee
A group of white Christian reformist tried to bring Christian beliefs on to the Indians. Fearing the Ghost Dance American troops were called to go with the reformist. While camped outside of an Indian reservation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reservation killing Indian men women and children.

comstock lode
In 1859, A great amount of gold and silver was discovered in Nevada. The “fifty-niners” rushed to Nevada in their own hopes of getting rich, which caused Nevada to become a state. It provided three electoral votes for President Lincoln.

Geronimo
the leader of the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man, who was trying to force the Apaches off of their land. He had an enormous hatred for the whites. He was, however, eventually pushed into Mexico where he surrendered

Sitting Bull
One of the leaders of the Sioux tribe. He was a medicine man ” as wily as he was influential.” He became a prominent Indian leader during the Sioux Was from 1876-1877.( The war was touched off when a group of miners rushed into the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1875.) The well-armed warriors at first proved to be a superior force. During Custer’s Last Stand in 1876, Sitting Bull was ” making medicine” while another Indian, Crazy Horse, led the Sioux. When more whites arrived at the Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and the other Sioux we forced into Canada.

Chief Joseph
He was chief of the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho. People wanting gold trespassed on their beaver river. To avoid war, and save his people he tried retreating to Canada with his people. They were cornered 30 miles from safety and he surrendered in 1877.

McKinley
presented a tariff bill in the House, and lost his seat in Congress because of it. He ran on the Republican ticket in the 1896 election and won the presidency while preaching a Gold Standard platform. He won again in 1900 and was assassinated in 1901.

Coxey’s Army
a marching demonstration to Washington, demanding that the government begin an inflationary public works program.

Eugene V. Debs
was a labor leader who helped organize the American Railroad Union. The Union went on strike against the Pullman Palace car company in 1894. The strike was put down by armed forces and Debs and other leaders were given six months imprisonment.

Moody
was an American evangelist and publisher who founded the a church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts

Gibbons
was an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Richmond from 1872 to 1877, and as Archbishop of Baltimore from 1877 until his death in 1921

American Protective Association
an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded in 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa. It was most active between 1891 and 1897. Many members were Irish Protestants who belonged to the anti-Catholic Orange Order or German and Scandinavian Lutherans. The APA’s goals included restricting Catholic immigration, making ability to speak English a prerequisite to American citizenship, removing Catholic teachers from public schools and banning Catholics from public offices.

Salvation Army
performs evangelical, social and charitable work and brings the Christian message to the poor, destitute and hungry by meeting both their physical and spiritual needs. Its ministry extends to all, regardless of ages, gender, color or creed.

Morrill act
established colleges with federal monies. The purpose was to promote agricultural and mechanical educations. Many schools with A in their names were established under this act. Texas A, Florida A, Michigan State, and Penn State are some of the most well known.

Custer
was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. Today he is most remembered for a disastrous military engagement known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, he was admitted to West Point in 1858, where he was a low-ranked student. However, with the outbreak of the Civil War, all potential officers were needed, and he was called to serve with the Union Army.

Bryan
the Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States in 1896, 1900 and 1908, a lawyer, and the 41st United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He was noted for a deep, commanding voice. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a supporter of popular democracy, a critic of banks and railroads, a leader of the silverite movement in the 1890s, a leading figure in the Democratic Party, a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, an opponent of Darwinism, and one of the most prominent leaders of populism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Because of his faith in the goodness and rightness of the common people, he was called “The Great Commoner.”

Buffalo Soldiers
originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The nickname was given to the “Negro Cavalry” by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

homestead act
was one of several United States Federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title up to 160 acres (1/4 section) of undeveloped land outside of the original 13 colonies. The new law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for deed of title. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. Government, including freed slaves, could file an application and improvements to a local land office.